Abstract mechanical background

The Challenge of Voltage Variation Testing on HV Components

Published: 24th January 2022

High voltage EV components are frequently exposed to variations in their supply voltage that occur during different driving conditions (accelerating, braking, battery SOC etc.). It is therefore necessary to test that HV components continue to function correctly under different supply voltages. This includes voltage changes (slow changing voltage ramps) as well as voltage dynamics (dynamic slopes and pulses).

The test setup is relatively simple with “just” a DC source as a dynamic battery simulator which supplies the EUT (plus some measurement devices to monitor the voltage and current):

ISO 21498, LV123, VW 80300 and other standards define various tests for voltage changes and voltage dynamics:

While the shape of the waveforms looks relatively simple, the difficulty lies in the rising and falling slopes. While voltage variations have slew rates (du/dt) in the range of 2V/s and 2000V/s, the voltage dynamics i.e. load dump require slew rates of 250V/ms and higher.

The table shows examples of rise times depending on the system voltage and slew rates:

Rise time (0 – 100%)System voltage
Slew rates400V800V
2 V/s200 s800 s
200 V /s2 s 4 s
250’000 V/s1.6 ms 3.2 ms



High voltage sources that are typically used in e-drive and battery test benches are optimized for precision, stability and cost. The downside of these sources is the limited dynamic of the output. While slower voltage changes are usually possible to generate, the fast voltage dynamics are out of their operating range.

The solution for e-drive and battery testing

To deliver the required high output dynamic of 500 V/ms or higher, a source designed to match the characteristics of the application is needed. This guarantees to reproduce exactly the required waveform – without over- or undershoot.

Below you can see an oscilloscope trace of a voltage profile 0 – 1000V with 1000V/ms slew rate (generated by PowerWave) - Note: the rise time is measured 10 – 90%

Special focus on high output slew rates is important when choosing a power source for testing drives and batteries according ISO 21498, LV123 and similar standards. AMETEK CTS NetWave and PowerWave are sources specifically designed and optimized to perform the range of demanding dynamic voltage tests.

MCS Test are an approved UK partner for Ametek CTS
Content Source: THE CHALLENGE OF VOLTAGE VARIATION TESTING (ametek-cts.com)

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EM Test PowerWave 250 Electronic Power Source

250 kVA/kW, upgradeable to 1 MVA/1MW

PowerWave is a high power, electronically controlled power sources suitable for applications where exceptional performance is required. Electric Vehicle testing according ECE R10 PowerWave is the ideal source to supply your EMC chamber and conducted test area with the power that is needed. It combines AC and DC in a compact footprint and allows charging in Mode 3 (AC) and Mode 4 (DC).

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EM Test NetWave 3 Series Programmable Multifunctional AC/DC Power Source

Output Power up to 7,500 VAAC and 9,000 WDC

NetWave - Simulation of the most required power supply phenomenon The NetWave series (1-phase) are single phase AC/DC power sources, specifically designed to meet the requirements as per the standards IEC/EN 61000-4-13, -4-14 and -4-28.

Find out more about EM Test NetWave 3 Series Programmable Multifunctional AC/DC Power Source
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EM Test NetWave 7 Series Programmable Multifunctional AC/DC Power Source

Output Power up to 7,500 VAAC and 9,000 WDC

NetWave - Simulation of the most required power supply phenomenon The NetWave series (1-phase) are single phase AC/DC power sources, specifically designed to meet the requirements as per the standards IEC/EN 61000-4-13, -4-14 and -4-28.

Find out more about EM Test NetWave 7 Series Programmable Multifunctional AC/DC Power Source
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EM Test NetWave 20 Series Three-Phase Multifunctional AC/DC Power Source

Wide Power Bandwidth; DC - 5 kHz

NetWave - Simulation of the most required power supply phenomenon The NetWave Series (3-phase) are three-phase AC/DC power source, specifically designed to fully meet the requirements as per the standards IEC/EN 61000-4-13, -4-14, -4-28 and in addition to pre compliance testing to -4-27.

Find out more about EM Test NetWave 20 Series Three-Phase Multifunctional AC/DC Power Source
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EM Test NetWave 30 Series Three-Phase Multifunctional AC/DC Power Source

Output Power up to 270 kVA AC / 324 kW DC

NetWave - Simulation of the most required power supply phenomenon The NetWave Series (3-phase) are three-phase AC/DC power source, specifically designed to fully meet the requirements as per the standards IEC/EN 61000-4-13, -4-14, -4-28 and in addition to pre compliance testing to -4-27.

Find out more about EM Test NetWave 30 Series Three-Phase Multifunctional AC/DC Power Source
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EM Test NetWave 67 Series Three-Phase Multifunctional AC/DC Power Source

Output Power up to 270 kVA AC/324 kW DC

NetWave - Simulation of the most required power supply phenomenon The NetWave Series (3-phase) are three-phase AC/DC power source, specifically designed to fully meet the requirements as per the standards IEC/EN 61000-4-13, -4-14, -4-28 and in addition to pre compliance testing to -4-27.

Find out more about EM Test NetWave 67 Series Three-Phase Multifunctional AC/DC Power Source

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